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An initiative of Earthwatch Institute

  1. 156 Graphium macleayanus macleayanus Photo by Geoff Walker
  2. 156_0 Graphium macleayanus macleayanus Photo by Geoff Walker
  3. 156_1 Graphium macleayanus macleayanus Photo by Geoff Walker
  4. 156_2 Graphium macleayanus macleayanus Photo by Geoff Walker
  5. 156_3 Graphium macleayanus macleayanus Photo by Geoff Walker

Macleay’s Swallowtail

Graphium macleayanus

Appearance

  • Colour: the caterpillar (larva) is green with a hump on its upper back and small white dots over its body. The butterfly (adult) has brown or black outer wings with some white markings plus two green blotches, and green inner wings (closest to its body). The underside of each wing has the same patterning but the green parts tend to be darker. It has “tails” at the tip of each hindwing (back wing).
  • Size:the caterpillar is about 4 cm long; the butterfly’s wingspan is usually 5 – 6 cm but can reach up to 8 cm.

Behaviour

  • Diet: the caterpillar eats leaves from a range of plants including various species of Sassafras, Native Pepper trees, Camphor Laurel, and other plants in the Lauraceae and Rutaceae families. The butterfly feeds on nectar from Lantana plants and various species in the Asteraceae family, which are the daisies.
  • Movement: the male butterfly defends its territory from rival males and can be seen circling treetops, descending to restlessly sip nectar from flowers.
  • Flight: it flies during the warmer months and never stops for long. Its wings are always vibrating.
  • Breeding: females lay pale green eggs on the young shoots of a food plant. Once the caterpillar has fully grown it forms into a pupa, which is green with yellow lines and is attached to the underside of a food-plant leaf.

What to Observe

  • Presence (to establish the first and last sighting for the season)
  • Courting/mating
  • Egg laying
  • Chrysalis (butterfly emerging from its shell)

ClimateWatch Science Advisor

We expect butterflies to appear earlier in the year as a result of climate change warming the Earth. They may also start appearing in new areas as warmer temperatures enable them to live in environments that were previously too cold for them.

When To Look

  • In the warmer months, usually from August through to April.
  • They appear earlier in warmer areas.

 Note: ClimateWatch is looking for any changes in the timing of these events so remember to keep a lookout from July!

Where To Look

  • In forests and woodlands, heath and urban areas.
  • It is native to the wetter coastal and mountain areas of eastern Australia, from northern Queensland south to Victoria, and also north-eastern Tasmania.
  • Look on the leaves of Native Pepper trees and plants in the Lauraceae (e.g. Camphor Laurel, Sassafras) and Rutaceae (citrus) families for caterpillars, and around Lantana and daises for butterflies. Male butterflies commonly collect around hilltops and can be seen flying above trees or spiralling up into the tree canopy.

Note: ClimateWatch is looking for any changes outside of their known ranges so remember to keep a lookout beyond these regions!

Macleay's Swallowtail distribution map - GBIF

Macleay's Swallowtail distribution map - GBIF

Where To Look

Maps of Habitat Suitability

Graphium_macleayanus-macleays_swallowtail

Current probability
of occurrence
2070 probability
of occurrence (RCP 8.5)
Species range change from
current to 2070 probability

Above, the left and middle maps show the modelled habitat suitability for the the species under current and potential future climate conditions. The colours indicate the predicted habitat suitability from low (white) to high (dark red).

The future habitat suitability is modelled for the year 2070 under a climate change scenario that represents 'business as usual' (RCP 8.5). The map on the right shows how the range of the species might change between now and 2070, with orange areas indicating where the species might disappear, green areas where the species range might expand, and blue areas where the habitat is predicted to be suitable for the species now and in the future.

The models for this species were run in the Biodiversity and Climate Change Virtual Laboratory. Please note that while models can be very informative, they are only a representation of the real world and thus should always be viewed with caution. You can read more about the science behind these models here.

Sightings

References

Walther G, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin J, Hoegh-Guldberg O, and Bairlein F 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389–395.

Braby MF 2000. Butterflies of Australia: Their Identification, Biology and Distribution. CSIRO Publishing.

Common IFB and Waterhouse, DF 1981. Butterflies of Australia (revised edition). Angus & Robertson.

  1. Search Species

  1. What Else?

    Another Swallowtail Butterfly: its wings won’t have green colouring on the undersides.

  1. Did You Know?

    It was named after the entomologist Alexander Macleay, who was chairman of the Linnean Society of London in 1814 and later founded the Macleay Museum at the University of Sydney.

    It is the only swallowtail found in Tasmania.

    There are two recognised subspecies: Graphium macleayanus macleayanus from Queensland and New South Wales, and Graphium macleayanus moggana from Tasmania, Victoria and parts of subalpine NSW.