Frill-necked Lizard Matt from Melbourne, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Frill-necked Lizard

Chlamydosaurus kingii

Did You Know?

  • It is the largest lizard in Australia from the “dragon” family of lizards (Agamids)
  • Its frill is used for defence, to make it look bigger, and for communication; may also be used to increase its body area, allowing it to warm up faster
  • Its main predators are eagles, owls, larger lizards, snakes and some mammals such as dingoes and quolls
  • Threats to its survival include land clearing, habitat destruction and feral cats
FactBox Image

A grey-brown to orange-brown body, which blends well with tree bark. The frill around its neck is more brightly coloured, ranging from yellow to black, mixed with orange and red. Males have a black belly.
Its frill usually lies folded around its shoulders and neck, but as it is connected to its mouth muscles, when its jaw opens wide (such as in alarm), the frill lifts up around its head. Its body is relatively short with a long neck and tail.

Size

70 – 95 cm long (from its snout to the end of its tail) two-thirds of which is its tail. Males are bigger than females. Its frill is 20 – 25 cm in diameter.

Behaviour

Diet

Mainly invertebrates, including insects and spiders, but will occasionally eat small vertebrates, including mammals and other lizards. It especially likes green ants.

Movement

Active during the day, particularly during the wet season. It basks in the morning sun to raise its body temperature and give it energy to feed and run quickly for the remainder of the day. It mainly forages for food in the morning and late afternoon and spends the rest of its time on tree trunks and limbs. Its long slim front limbs and strong hind legs enable it to stretch and move easily between branches. It scans the ground for prey from the trees then rapidly descends and runs on two legs along the ground, before dropping onto four legs to seize its prey.

If threatened, it will sit back on its hind legs and open its mouth to expand its frill. It then hisses and may jump towards the predator. If that has no effect, it will turn quickly and run away on two legs to climb the nearest tree and hide behind the trunk or a branch.

Breeding

Begins at the start of the wet season (spring). Males are very territorial and aggressive toward other males during this time. They court females by performing an elaborate dance. If a female is interested she bobs her head. Mating occurs around September after which the female lays between 8 and 14 (sometimes up to 23!) eggs in a nest 10 – 20 cm deep in the ground, usually after rain. The eggs hatch after 8 – 12 weeks and the hatchlings are completely independent, remaining together for up to 10 days in the absence of any parental care. There may be two clutches per season, depending on the availability of food and other resources.

Species: WhatToObserve Image

What to Observe

  • Basking

  • Feeding

  • Courting/Mating

  • Presence of juveniles

  • Hatched eggs

 

Climate Adaptations

Frill-necked Lizards may start appearing in new areas, south of their current habitats, as warmer temperatures enable them to live in environments that were previously too cold for them.

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When and Where

When To Look

  • From September to March
  • Mating occurs around September
  • Eggs are laid around November
  • Eggs hatch around February

Where To Look

  • Throughout northern Australia, including the Kimberley region in Western Australia, the northern part of the Northern Territory, Cape York Peninsula and eastern Queensland
  • In tropical to warm temperate dry forests and woodlands that have an open shrubby or tussock-grass understorey
  • Look on tree trunks and branches
Species: WhatElse Image

What Else?

Similar Species

Common or Eastern Bearded Dragon (Pogona barbata) is usually shorter and doesn’t have the large loose frill sitting around its neck; rather it has a throat membrane which it inflates if threatened. It is also only found in eastern Australia, excluding Cape York Peninsula and the cooler regions of the south-east.