We expect plants to start shooting and flowering earlier in the year as a result of global heating. Shifting climate may also expand or contract their distribution.

Click on the images below to learn more about the species, their phenophase behaviours, and how to identify them, so you can contribute your ClimateWatch observations.

A densely branched shrub with a tea-tree aroma when crushed. Usually grows between 0.5 - 1 m in height. May reach 2 m tall in lower altitudes. Will usually grow along the ground or against rocks. Leaves Usually crowded, oblong, and do not spread very widely. Size approximately 2–4 mm long and 1 mm wide, thick, concavo-convex (concave on both sides) and pointed at ends. Flowers Solitary, white and have circular petals, 8 mm across. Usually appear between December and April.
Low, spreading shrub growing to 15 - 50 cm high and 1 - 1.5 m in diameter. Stems and branches are densely arranged and covered in small hairs. The hairs are white-grey or brown/tan towards the tip of the branchlets. Leaves The leaves are narrow-oblong in shape and between 1 - 3.2 cm long and 3 - 7 mm wide. The bases are round and the edges of the leaf are bent downwards. The upper leaf surfaces are green, nearly glossy, hairless and smooth with obvious veins. The lower leaf surfaces are covered with cream, pale tan or orange-tan hairs that become white or grey with age. The leaf stalks are between 2.5 - 3.7 mm long. Flowers Flowering occurs between October and December. Pea-like flowers have petals that are deep mauve in colour. The flowering parts of the alpine rusty-pods are stalkless and usually 2-flowered. The flower stalks are between 2 - 5 mm long.
Citrus sinensis Aranis trees grow in the tropics and subtropics. It is a recent introduction to many of the Pacific Islands and has become naturalised in Vanuatu. There are four varieties of Aranis in Vanuatu. The tree grows to 12 m and often has spiny stems. It can have multiple flowering periods in the tropics, including year-round. It is a very good source of Vitamin C. Leaves Leaves are 10 cm in length and dark green. The shape is elliptic (a flattened oval) to ovate (egg-shaped), with the margins irregularly crenate (scalloped margin) or crenulate (serrated margin). Flowers Flowers are fragrant, white and 2 to 3 cm in diameter. Fruit Fruits are generally 8 to 10 cm in diameter but can be smaller or larger. The fruit is mildly sweet to sweet. The peel is greenish yellow to bright orange. A thick skin adheres to the flesh of the fruit.
Large deciduous tree with yellow leaves in autumn, around 20 m high. Also known as the Desert Ash. Leaves are comprised of leaflets. Has brown buds in winter. Many flowers in spring and fruit. Leaves 14 - 20cm long, usually 5 - 7 (occasionally 13) leaflets, which are each 5 - 8 cm long and 0.7 - 2 cm wide. Serrated edges with pointed leaf tips. Bright and shiny green on upper side and dark and pale on underside. Flowers Many inconspicuous flowers with no sepals or petals. Red to purple anthers (pollen-bearing part of a flower).
The Greek "dios" means divine or god-like, and "pyros" means wheat, a reference to the fruit of the gods, as some of the members of the genus have tasty fruit. A small shrub-like tree with a height of 11 m. It also flowers and fruits as a shrub. Very dark, mottled grey to black bark on the trunk/body of the tree. Leaves Thick leathery leaves 7 - 9 cm long.
Musa acuminata Common names: Banana (Gros Michel?) – Local/Bislama names for the varieties: Vetaï tamouté (white man’s banana - Cavendish), Switi, Sweet Tuven, Wan Manis (one month), Franis (French), Mignonette (sweet) Bananas are thought to have been first domesticated in Southeast Asia. They are native to the Indo-Malesian, Asian and the Australian tropics. Bananas are widely distributed and cultivated throughout all Pacific Islands and are a staple food plant. They are a major crop throughout most of Vanuatu. Banana are giant herbs whose underground stem forms a false trunk which is 2-9 m tall at maturity. Bananas can be planted and harvested year-round. Leaves Wide-spreading and long leaves, up to 3.5 m in length and 65 cm in width. They are comprised of a stalk (petiole) and blade. Leaves are arranged in a spiral around the ‘trunk’. They are easily torn by wind. Flowers A vertical inflorescence (flower head) forms a cluster or bunch, that is arranged in a spiral. The axils (upper angle between the leaf stalk/branch and the trunk) has rows of flowers. Bananas have both male and female flowers. Female flowers can turn into fruit and are found closer to the leaves. The male flower is generally purple-red and is usually found below the bunch of fruits. Fruit Fruits grow in large hanging clusters (bunches) near the top of the plant. They are made up 10 to 20 tiers, which are called ‘hands’. Each tier can contain up to 20 fruit. Individual fruit are known as banana or ‘finger’. The fruit has a protective peel with long, thin strings running lengthwise between the peel and the edible inner portion. The end of the fruit has a small darker tip which is the remains of the flower. The fruit ripen to a full yellow colour at ambient equatorial temperatures.
The Black Wattle plays an important role in Australia's ecosystems. As a pioneer plant it quickly binds erosion-prone soil following bushfires. Like other leguminous plants, it fixes the atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. Other woodland species can rapidly use these increased nitrogen levels provided by the nodules of bacteria present in their expansive root systems. Hence they play a critical part in natural regeneration after bushfires. Spreading tree which grows to 5 - 15 m tall. Bark is smooth and of greenish-brown colour on young branches. Blackish and rough on trunk. Distinct yellow flowers in September to December. Leaves Fern-like bipinnate leaves (leaflets that are further subdivided in an arrangement of leaves on either side of the stem). Olive green in colour. Raised glands are present at the junction of and between each pinnae (little leaf). Flowers Pale yellow or sometimes cream coloured ball-shaped inflorescences (clusters of flowers arranged on a stem). Flowering occurs from September through to December. Highly perfumed.
Also known as Blueberry Lily, a long, feathery shrub with flowers sticking up above the leaves. Long green pointy leaves with vibrant blue to purple inflorescences (flower clusters). Grows up to 1.5 m high. Leaves Long, feathery, smooth green leaves. 15 - 85 cm long with 4 - 15 mm width. Pointy ends and long and stiff throughout. Can sometimes appear red towards base but this is rare. Flowers Flowers stick up above the leaves, consisting of 6 purple petals (7 - 12 mm length) and 6 stamens (pollen-bearing part of the flower) in a ring. These are long, thick and have brown to black tips with yellow stems.
Small to large tree with a variable height of 3 - 45 m and has a bole that is approximately 150 cm in diameter. It has deeply fissured, dark-grey to black coloured bark that appears quite scaly on older trees. Leaves Inclined to ascending, narrowly rounded, lance-shaped, straight to slightly curved. 3-5 raised main veins with numerous secondary veins. Flowers Pale yellow/golden to white clusters of 2 - 8 that flowers July – December. In Victoria, it flowers in August - October.
Shrub or small tree to 8 m high. Leaves Soft, drooping, mostly 10 – 25 cm long and 2 – 5 cm wide, oblong or lanceolate with woolly white underside. Flowers Yellow or orange flower clusters.
Artocarpus altilis Bredfrut is a widely distributed pantropical species and is cultivated on most Pacific Islands. It prefers to grow in climates with summer rains. Bredfrut has spreading evergreen canopy and generally growing 12-15 m in height, but can reach up over 21 m. The trunk can be large, up to 2 m in diameter. All parts of the tree contain a white milky latex. Vanuatu is an important centre for diversity in breadfruit. Over 30 different cultivars are found in northern Vanuatu, potentially up to 100. Leaves Leaves are alternate, broadly obovate to ovate. The leaf blade is generally smooth, glossy, dark green with green or yellow-green veins and a few to many white to reddish-white hairs on the midrib and veins. The underside of the leaves is light green and matt. Flowers Male flowers appear first and are club-shaped, up to 5 cm in diameter and 45 cm long. Thousands of tiny flowers are attached to a central, spongy core. Female inflorescence is 1500-2000 reduced green flowers attached to a spongy core. The flowers fuse together to form a fleshy edible fruit. Fruit The fruits are variable in shape, size, and surface texture, although they are usually round, oval or oblong and range from 9-20 cm wide and more than 30 cm long. Skin texture varies from smooth to slightly bumpy or spiny. Fruit colour is light green, yellowish-green or yellow when mature. The flesh of the fruit is creamy white or pale yellow and contains none to many seeds, depending on the variety. Seeded varieties are more common in Vanuatu.
Spreading small to medium-sized tree with trunk covered by white, beige and grey thick papery bark. Usually grows to 8 – 15 m high (sometimes 25 m) with a spread of 5–10 m. Leaves Grey-green leaves are egg-shaped. Young growth hairy with long and short, soft hairs. Leaves arranged alternately; flat, leathery, 55 – 120 mm long, 10 – 31 mm wide. Flowers Flowers cream or white bottlebrush-like, arranged in spikes on ends of branches which continue to grow after flowering. Spikes contain 5 to 18 groups of flowers in threes, up to 40 mm in diameter and 20 – 50 mm long. Petals 3 mm long and fall off as flower ages. Stamens (male organ of a flower, consisting of a stalk and a pollen-bearing portion) white, cream-coloured or greenish and arranged in 5 bundles around the flower, 5 - 10 stamens per bundle.
Hibiscus tiliaceus Burao is found in the tropics and subtropics and is native to Vanuatu. An evergreen tree, it can grow to 3-10 m in height. It has a crooked, tangled and sprawling shape and the canopy is generally wider than its height. The bark is smooth to lightly fissured and grey to light brown in colour. The bark thickens and roughens as the tree ages. Burao can be highly variable in shape and in the leaf and flower colours. Leaves The leaves are 6-22 cm in length and have an ovate (oval or egg shaped) to orbicular shape (spherical or rounded). They can be heart-shaped and are large and wavy. The upper surface of the leaves is bright green and greyish-green and hairy on the underside. Flowers Terminal 3-6 flowered cymes (flower cluster with a central stem where a single terminal flower develops before the others develop off lateral stems) or solitary. Five radiating, obovate (ovate with a narrower end at the base), yellow petals that are 4-6.5 cm long and have a base colour of dark red/maroon. The stamen, or male fertilizing organ of the flower, has a tube that is 2-2.5 cm in length. The flowers are showy, fragile, and short-lived, falling the same day that they open. The flowers fade to pink prior to falling. Fruit The fruits are 1.6 to 2.2 cm in length. The fruit casing is ovoid-ellipsoid in shape and light brown in colour with densely matted grey woolly hairs.  The seeds are brown, 4 x 2 mm in length and width, tuberculate (kidney-shaped, with 5-7 seeds per cell), and hairy.
Small semi-pendulous epiphytic orchid. 5 - 15 cm across, stems to 5 cm long. Leaves 3 - 10 thin leathery oblong, sometimes curved, dark green leaves 2 - 11 cm long and 4 - 17 mm wide. Flowers 1 - 4 pendulous sprays of 2 - 17 pale yellowish-green to brown flowers, lip white with yellow tints and purple stripes. Sepals and petals narrowly spoon-shaped, spreading; lip short, 3-lobed, projecting forward, side lobes broad, erect, curved inwards.
Single trunk, palm tree grows up to 15 – 20 m high, 1 m in diameter. Leaves Spread leaves, 6 m long and 50 cm wide (when flattened), short thick and extremely sharp-pointed. Flowers A loose branching cluster of yellowish flowers. The flowers are 2 - 4 cm long with rounder outer segments.
Dense, multi-branched shrub forming extensive colonies, grows to approximately 50 - 100 cm tall. Leaves Leaves are erect and spread outwardly, shape varies from leaf to leaf but they generally are lance-shaped and have sharp points. All leaves are of a similar bright green colour. Flowers Flowers December to February. The flowers of candle heath branch out above the shrub on a red stalk measuring between 10 - 30 cm. Fragrant, greenish-white flowers bloom on the terminal end of the stalk. The flowers are trumpet-shaped and are 4 - 8 mm long and 4 - 5 mm in diameter.
Shrub or small pyramidal tree, yellowish green or bronzy. Commonly 8 - 10 m high. Numerous branchlets are hairy and flaky at first then become smooth and straight.The swollen orange to red stalk preceding the small hard fruit is often mistaken as the fruit itself. Leaves Scale-like, triangular, 0.5 mm long and 2 – 3 mm long on new growth. Flowers Yellow-green flowers in short, dense, clusters that are usually 6 mm long. Flowers appear in early spring to autumn (September to May).
This ClimateWatch indicator species is supported by the ClimateWatch in Parks program and Barwon Coast. Bushy shrub/tree that is between 5 - 10 m in height. Bark is smooth initially becoming fissured turning grey to brown. Leaves Reddish angular branches with flat, linear, ash-green, smooth phyllodes (flattened stems that resemble leaves) shooting off. These 'leaves' are 6 – 12 cm long and 3 – 15 mm in width with hooked tips. Flowers Small, pale yellow with spherical heads.
Tree to 25 m high; bark grey-brown, thick, roughly tessellated (mosaic-like). Its smaller branches are striated (striped with parallel longitudinal ridges or lines). Leaves Often whorled (arranged as a ring of leaves), lance-shaped and sometimes broadest in the upper third 4 – 10 cm long and 1 – 3.5 cm wide Coloured differently on the two surfaces: upper surface dark green, dull to shiny; lower surface white and covered with dense intertwined hairs Pointed or having a broad shallow notch at the tip Adult leaves have entire margins while juveniles will have a few short teeth, flat or slightly curved backwards Flowers Flowers mainly January - June. Pale yellow cylindrical spikes forming a bottle-brush shape. Each flower head is 6 – 12 cm long, 5 – 8 cm wide and attracts insects and nectar-eating birds.
A member of the mint family. Rosemary refers to the shape of the plant and not the scent. Large shrub, up to 2 m high and 5 m wide. Leaves Dark green leaves with short hairs on the underside. Up to 2 cm long, narrow and pointed and close to the stem. Dense foliage. Flowers 2 cm across, forming a fan-shape around the stem. White or pale pruple with reddish and yellow spots near the throat. Field Guide Improve your identification skills. Download your Coastal Rosemary field guide here!
Its genus name Leptospermum is from Greek leptos (thin) and sperma (seed), referring to its small seeds; and its species name laevigatum is from Latin laevigatus (smooth), probably referring to the appearance of the plant. Also known as Australian Myrtle and Victorian Tea Tree. A tall, bushy shrub or small tree, with bark that sheds in strips. Grows up to 6 m tall. Leaves Grey-green and obovate (egg-shaped and flat, with the narrow end attached to the stalk). They are 1.5 – 3 cm long and 5 – 8 mm wide. Flowers White and usually in groups of two. The flower heads are usually 1.5 – 2 cm in diameter, and made up of five petals that are 5 – 8 mm long, with many stamens protruding from the centre that are 2 mm long.
Lorea is Latin for 'made of thongs' or 'long strips of leather'; referring to the long terete leaves of this species. Also known as the Bootlace Oak. Small tree with distinctively deeply fissured, corky and rough bark. It can grow to about 6 m tall. Leaves Shiny, dark green needle like leaves are up to 40 cm long. Flowers Each bright orange to dull lemon-coloured flower is about 1.5 cm long but is grouped into a spectacular raceme up to 12 cm long.
Tuberous, perennial herb which grows from underground stems. 5 - 30 cm high. Leaves It has a broad, hairy basal leaf up to 25 cm long. Flowers The 30 - 40 mm diameter flowers are often solitary but up to four flowers may be borne on a slender stem about 30 cm high. It is a very distinctive species because of its bright yellow flowers which often have crimson spots. Field Guide Improve your identification skills. Download your Cowslip Orchid field guide here!
A deciduous tree, usually 12 – 20 m high when planted in parks and gardens but can reach about 40 m high in its natural environment. Its low, wide-spreading and rounded canopy is usually 10 – 18 m wide. Its trunk is typically short, with ridged dark grey to black bark. Leaves Dark green and oval to rectangular in shape with 3 – 7 rounded lobes on either side. They are 7.5 – 12.5 cm long and have a very short stem. They are pale blue-green underneath and turn tan to brown in autumn, before falling from the tree in late winter. Flowers Tiny, green to pale yellow, hanging in slim, cylindrical clusters (known as catkins).
Often called Deciduous Beech, it is Australia’s only cold-deciduous woody plant. The wiry tangled growth of its branches give it another common name, Tanglefoot. A dense shrub. Usually 1 - 3 m tall and wide, with spreading branches. It sometimes grows as a small tree in rainforest. Bark smooth and grey. Leaves Arranged alternately along stems, on short stalks. Individual leaves are rounded in outline with lobed margins; distinct grooves follow the leaf veins making the veins prominent on the lower side. Leaves are 10 - 20 mm long, bright to mid-green, paler on the under surface, turning yellow then orange or red in autumn. Leaves are absent during Winter. New leaves unfold from buds in a concertina fashion in spring. Flowers Separate male and female flowers, small and inconspicuous, and appear in late summer and early autumn.
Its genus name Stenocarpus means narrow fruit, referring to its seed pods; and its species name sinuatus means wavy, referring to the edges of the leaves. Evergreen tree, up to 35 m high, but much smaller when grown in gardens where it reaches a height of only about 10 m with a width of 5 m. Leaves Dark glossy green and paler underneath, they can be oval-shaped, lobed or have wavy edges. They are usually 15 – 25 cm long (but can be up to 45 cm long) and 2 – 5 cm wide, and are generally smaller on exposed branches. There is one distinct vein running down the centre of each leaf. Flowers Bright red with a yellow tip, and 2.5 – 4 cm long. They cluster in a wheel-like arrangement at the end of a stalk. The cluster can be up to 10 cm in diameter and consists of 6 - 20 flowers.
Its genus name Epicris means upon (epi) and a summit (acris), referring to the altitude where some species occur; and its species name longiflora means long (longus) and flower (florus), referring to the long, narrow flowers. An upright to spreading evergreen shrub, typically straggly with branches arching towards the ground, 0.5 – 2 m high. Leaves With pointed tip and wide base, they are often described as heart-shaped. Each leaf is 5 – 17 mm long, 3 – 6.6 mm wide, and has slightly serrated margins. It is thin, flat, and sometimes has a rough upper surface. Flowers Long and tubular, some have pink-red tubes and white lobes (tips), others are all white. They are 5 – 6 mm in diameter and 12 – 27 mm long, with the lobes being 2.4 – 4.4 mm long. They grow in rows along the branches and are upright at first and then hang down as they reach maturity.
Bushy or straggly shrub, branchlets more or less angled at extremities, smooth or hairy. Bark is smooth, grey to brown. Commonly grows to 2.5 m high. Leaves Has phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) that are rounded, usually asymmetric 0.4 – 1.5 cm long and 2 – 8 mm wide, hairy or smooth. Leaf midrib (large midline vein) is obscure or absent, lateral veins also absent. Flowers Bright yellow ball-shaped inflorescences (clusters flowers arranged on a stem) that form in patterns of 5. Flowers appear in late winter and spring and into early summer (July to November).
The species name pycnantha from the Greek (pyknos) meaning dense, and (anthos) meaning a flower, refers to the dense clusters of flowers. Small shrub or tree. Usually 3 - 8 m high. Leaves Has phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) that are pinnate (arranged opposite each other on either side of the stem) and sickle-shaped 9 - 15 cm long and 1 - 3.5 cm wide; branchlets on leaves are hairy, sometimes covered in white powdery granules. Flowers Bright golden and sometimes lemon-yellow ball-shaped inflorescences (clusters flowers arranged on a stem). Flowers appear in late winter and spring and into early summer (July to November).
A reference to its yellow resin, Xanthorrhoea literally means "yellow flow" in Ancient Greek. Grass-tree is a misnomer. Its not a grass, nor a tree.They are actually distantly related to lilies. Perennial flowering plant. Trunk resembles a tree above ground or exists under the earth’s surface. Trunk is woody and made up of tiny packed leaves. Leaves Clustered in a terminal crown, 30 - 140 cm long, rhombic (kite-shaped) to wedge-shaped in cross-section, tapering at the ends. Flowers Borne as flower clusters on a cylindrical and spike-like woody axis. In the bush the flowers could reveal directions, since flowers on the warmer, sunnier side (usually north) of the spike often open before the flowers on the cooler side facing away from the sun.
Medium-sized tree with long ascending branches forming a fairly large crown, grey fibrous bark on the lower branches and trunk. The upper branches have a smooth grey coloured bark. Commonly grows to 10 - 25 m tall. Leaves Juvenile leaves petiolate (a stalk that joins a leaf to a stem), are dull green, oval, usually 15 cm long and 5 cm wide. Adult leaves are narrow oval shape tapering to a point at each end, usually 8 – 15 cm long and 1 – 2 cm wide, clustered and dull green. Flowers The flower buds have cone-like caps. Flowers are cream to white which appear in late summer to winter (February to June).
Also known as Gum-topped Box. Tree to 25 m high. Bark is rough on part or all of trunk, thin, box-type or tessellated (mosaic-like), grey or mottled with grey and white patches; smooth bark white, cream or pale-grey, often shiny. Leaves Adult leaves alternate, broadly lance-shaped, 7 - 17 cm long, 2 - 5 cm wide, green, glossy, concolorous (both sides of the leaf blade are the same colour). Flowers White and usually clustered in groups of 7. Sometimes there are more than 7 or there may appear to be less as flowers have dropped off. They occur in multiple groups at the end of small branches. Flower buds are ovate (egg-shaped) to fusiform (spindle shaped; tapering at both ends), 5 - 9 m long, 3 - 4 mm diameter; scar absent.
Large to small tree or shrub up to 25 m high (commonly around 5 m), branches, flower heads and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery Pneumatophores (erect, pencil-like aerial roots specialised for gaseous exchange) are numerous and project from shallow lateral roots. Leaves Leathery and measure up to 16 cm in length and 5 cm in width. They are ovate, pointed and arranged opposite one another on the stems. The leaves are glossy green above with a distinctive pale and slightly hairy, grey underside. Stomata (pores) and salt glands are scattered over the entire leaf surface but are more abundant on the underside. Leaves are often covered in crusted salt from the exuded secretions. Flowers Yellow-orange or golden. Flower clusters dense, arranged at leafy shoot tips; flower stalks 10 – 30 mm long. Flower 4 - 8 mm long with a corolla of four fused pointed petals 3 - 7 mm wide.
Giant tussock-like, rosette plant. Grows up to 2.5 m high with a flower stalk up to 5 m high! Its genus name Doryanthes (meaning spear and flower), and its species name excelsa (meaning high), both refer to its tall flower stem. Leaves Long, sword-shaped and forming a clump. Each individual leaf is 1 – 2.5 m long and about 10 cm wide. Shorter leaves up to 30 cm long are found along the flower stem. Flowers Located at the top of a single flower stem which grows from the centre of the tussock of leaves. The stem is 2 – 5 m high upon which the flowers form a cluster up to 70 cm in diameter. The individual flowers are bright red (or rarely white), trumpet-shaped and 10 – 16 cm long.
Deciduous tree, up to 35 m high, but much smaller when grown in gardens and in cooler areas where it reaches a height of only about 10 m. It can take 5 – 8 years to flower if grown from a seed. Leaves Smooth, oval-shaped and can have three or five lobes (and sometimes more). Each leaf is 10 – 30 cm long. The tree loses some or all of its leaves at the end of winter, before flowering, and the leaves turn yellow just before falling. Flowers Bright coral-red and bell-shaped, they occur in clusters at the end of branches. They are 1 – 2 cm long and have a waxy surface. They appear after the tree has lost all or some of its leaves.
Tree up to 35 m tall. The bark is rough over whole trunk and branches, thick, hard, grooved, black (ironbark). Leaves Juvenile leaves petiolate (have a stalk), are opposite for a few pairs then alternate, narrowly to broadly tapering to a point, to 17 cm long and 4 cm wide, more or less discolorous, green or greyish-green or glaucous (covered with a a greyish, bluish, or whitish powder or waxy coating). Adult leaves petiolate, alternate, lance-head shaped, 9.5 – 22 cm long and 1 – 2 cm wide, concolorous (the lower leaf surface distinctly different in colour from the upper), green or glaucous; reticulation dense with numerous intersectional oil glands. Flowers It blooms producing inflorescences with flowers that are white, rarely pink. Keep an eye out for the flower caps that cover developing flowers and may fall on the ground at the end of flowering.
Deciduous tree, not native to Australia. Grows up to 15 m high and wide. Leaves Bright green, feathery and fern-like. Individual leaves are narrow and elliptic, 3 – 12 mm long and arranged either side of a 5 – 10 cm long stem. They turn yellow in autumn before falling from the tree. Flowers Blue-purple and trumpet-shaped, forming clusters that are 20 – 30 cm in diameter. Each individual flower is 2 – 3 cm long and about 1 cm wide. They are lightly fragranced and remain on the tree for about 2 months. There are four stamens inside the flower which produce pollen, and also a staminode which doesn’t produce any pollen.
Large, spreading tree, up to 14 m in height. Also know as Red Bush Apple. Leaves Variable in shape, oblong, ovate or lanceolate, usually large 7 - 19 cm long and 4 - 13 cm wide. Leaf midrib slightly grooved, depressed or flush with the upper surface. Flowers Large cream white brushes with long white stamens (pollen-containing anther) 13-48 mm long.
Fast growing deciduous tree that reaches 3 - 15m in height. Also known as Brown Bollygum. Leaves Oblong shaped leaf blades that are clothes in white, erect hairs. Flowers Clusters of cream, green or yellow flowers appear along stems from March – June.
Deciduous tree, growing to 15 – 30 m high and 15 – 20 m wide. Some of its grey-brown bark peels off to reveal a creamy white inner bark, giving the trunk a mottled appearance. Leaves Mid-to-dark green with 3 – 5 lobes and slightly serrated edges. They are 10 – 25 cm across and turn yellow-brown in autumn. The leaf lobes are about as wide as they are long. Flowers Red or yellow, in small rounded clusters. The red (female) flowers grow from the newer shoots and the yellow (male) flowers grow from older branches further back toward the trunk.
Citrus reticulata Common names: Raiatea (most common variety in Vanuatu), Mandarin orange, Mandarine (French) Small-sized tree that grows up to 9 m in height. Long slender branches. Often has spiny stems. Raiatea variety has an erect bearing that is cone shaped. Leaves 6-8 cm in length. The shape is rhombic, acute, lanceolate with the margins irregularly crenate or crenulate (serrated). Flowers Fragrant, single or in small clusters. The flowers are small, star shaped and white. Fruit 6 cm. Oblate-globose to depressed-subconcave globose. They have a thin yellow to bright orange to red-orange peel when ripe. The pulp is pale to rich orange and the juice is mild to sweet.
Mangifera indica Originally from India and Myanmar, the Mango Tree has become naturalised throughout the tropics and subtropics. The mango tree is a large, spreading evergreen with a dense crown and rounded canopy. Mature trees can attain a height of 40 m or more, with a 60 to 120 cm trunk and greyish-brown, longitude-fissured bark. Most varieties flower once per year, producing dense clusters of flowers.  Leaves Mango leaves are spirally arranged. Young leaves are copper-coloured, turning to light then dark shiny green as they mature. The leaves are either elliptical or lanceolate (pointed at both ends) with long petioles (“sticks” that attach the leaf to the branch) and a leathery texture. Flowers The tree produces dense clusters of flowers with cream-pink petals on loose flower branches. The flower clusters can reach full bloom, from the time of flower initiation, in 25-30 days. Fruit The mango fruit is large and roughly oval, with uneven sides, though the shape can vary from elongate (stretched out), oblong, ovate (egg shaped) or in between. The fruit is one-celled, with an outer flesh surrounding a stone. The flesh is soft and bright yellow-orange in colour. The skin of the fruit is yellow-green to red. Fruit length can range from 2.5 to over 30 cm, depending on the cultivar. The fruit grow fast and ripen after 3 to 4 months, some late cultivars after 5 months. The period from fruit set to maturity depends upon cultivar and climate and can range from 10 to 28 weeks.
There are 5 subspecies, 4 of which are found in Victoria. The species name viminalis means willowlike. A tall tree, up to 40 - 50 m with smooth, white bark that peels in long ribbons. Rough at base. Leaves Adult leaves are long, narrow, bright green, glossy. Juvenile leaves are opposite, stalk-less, dull green, sword shaped. Flowers Not prolific, white flowers. Inflorescences (group of flowers) are axillary (arising from the meeting point of a leaf and a branch) on stalks 0.8 cm long, with 3 - 7 flowers per inflorescence. Flower buds are oval to spindle-shaped, 5 - 9 mm long and 3 - 6 mm wide.
Corymbia comes from Latin (corymbium) a "corymb" refers to floral clusters where all flowers branch from the stem at different levels but ultimately terminate at about the same level and calophylla comes from Greek (calo) beautiful, and (phyllon) a leaf. Large tree with tessellated bark, up to 40 – 60 m high. Leaves Lance to oval shape. Veins are distinct. Flowers White to pink.
Shrub or small tree to 10 m high with hard, rough bark, dark grey bark on a trunk that is often twisted and bent by the effects of wind. Bark hard, fissured, slightly papery or flaking. Leaves Arranged alternately, linear to narrow-elliptic, 5 – 15 mm long and 1 – 3 mm wide. Flowers White or cream coloured and arranged in many-flowered spikes 2–4 cm long. Field Guide Improve your identification skills. Download your Moonah field guide here!
A significant environmental weed in NSW and Queensland, and a minor environmental weed in Victoria and South Australia. Also called ‘Cruel Plant’ as it catches butterflies and moths. Green climber vine with green triangular leaves. It can grow up to 5 m long/high with clusters of pink-white flowers. Large green ribbed fruit resemble turn brown before splitting to shed masses of white cotton-like seeds. Leaves Green triangular to oval leaves 3 - 11 cm long and 1.5 - 6 cm wide with pointy ends and curling edges. Scattered hairs on upper surface with lower surface smooth with minimal fine hairs. Flowers Bell-shaped tubular flowers have five sepals (8 - 13mm long) and five petals (18 - 20 mm long) that are fused at the base. The tips of the sepals (calyx lobes) and petals (corolla lobes) are usually curved outwards or backwards. Flowers may be white or pale pink and sometimes have darker pink streaks in their throat. Flowers are borne in 2 - 5 flowered clusters (cymes), 2 - 2.5 cm diameter.
Erect, spreading shrub growing to approximately 1.5 - 3 m high and 1.5 - 4.5 m wide. Branchlets are densely covered in small, white hairs. Leaves Leaves are elliptic (rounded) to lanceolate (lance-shaped), and about 6 - 12 cm long and 10 - 45 mm wide. The upper surface of the leaf is olive green in colour, smooth and semi-glossy with the underside being a pale-green/white colour, covered in white hairs. Leaf margins are flat or slightly recurved. Flowers Produces red or reddish brown flowers that bloom at the end of branches. Flowers are trumpet-like measuring 3 - 17 mm long and 1.2 - 1.6 mm wide, a single stem shoots from the flower and measures 17 - 90 mm long.
Straggly to erect tree up to 20 m tall with a rounded canopy. Smooth and grey bark on top trunk; dark grey, scaly and shedding in ribbons on lower trunk. Leaves Juvenile leaves are thick, egg-shaped to round. Often notched on end. 7 cm long and 5 cm wide. Adult leaves are dull green, broad, elliptic (shaped like a flattened circle) to egg-shaped 8 - 15 cm long and 2.5 - 6 cm wide with dense veins and petioles (leaf stalks) up to 3 cm. Flowers White inflorescence (flower clusters). Flower buds up to 7 narrow diamond-shaped buds < 0.7cm long. Commonly 7 per cluster. Similar to E. ovata but narrower.
Ficus obliqua Nabanga are also known as Banyan Tree and Small-leaved Fig is native to eastern Australia, New Guinea, eastern Indoneasia to Sulawesi and islands in the south-western Pacific Ocean. It starts its life growing either on other species or on rocks. Nabanga that grow on other plants, will eventually grow to encase, or strangle, the host tree. The aerial roots form stout pillars that resemble tree trunks and allow the tree to continue to expand as it ages. It can grow 15 – 60 m high with a similar width. The bark is smooth, thin, and grey and the trunk is buttressed and up to 3 m in diameter. Leaves Glossy green, elliptic to oblong. 5-8 cm long and 2 – 3.5 cm wide. Channelled on the upper surface. Flowers Tiny flowers arise from the inner surface of the fruit, known as an inverted inflorescence. Within any given fruit, the male flowers will mature several weeks after the female flowers. Fruit The fruit are round with diameters of 6 – 10 mm. They grow in pairs, starting yellow and turning to orange to orange-red dotted with darker red.
Syzygium malaccense Native to Malesia and Australia and introduced to Oceania by indigenous travellers. In Vanuatu it appears to be naturalised and the locals recognise four to six different forms of this plant, based on the colour, size and taste of the fruits. The tree grows to 12 to 18 m in height and has a bole (trunk) that is short and often fluted. The flowers and fruits can be either pink or white, depending on the form present. The wood from this tree can be used to make canoes. Leaves Nakavika has leaves that are opposite and simple with a blade that is ovate to oblong. They are generally 10-30 cm long and are glossy green. Flowers Flower clusters have short stems with a few flowers up to 6 cm long on the trunk or older branches. The terminal flower develops first. The sepals of the flower, that is shaped like an inverted cone and encloses the petals and protects flower buds, is pale yellow with rounded lobes. There are four rounded flower petals that are red or pink (rarely white) and 7 to 11 mm long. The flowers contain many, up to 200, red stamens. When the flowers fall, they form a carpet under the tree. Fruit The fruit is oblong-shaped and dark red in colour, although some, rarer, varieties have white or pink skins, including in Ambrym, Vanua Lava, Epi, Maewo, Malo, Malekula, Pentecost, Tanna and the Torres Islands (at these locations white fruit and flower forms are present). The flesh is white and surrounds a large seed.
Inocarpus fagifer The Namambe tree is believed to be indigenous to Vanuatu. It is an evergreen tree with a large dense canopy and short, thick, irregular buttresses. The tree grows to around 20 m in height. The flowers are fragrant and white to pale yellow. They are pollinated by bees and bats, fruit bats also spreading the seeds. Fallen fruit and seeds can be used in fish farming as food for freshwater fish and prawns. Four types of Namambe are found in Vanuatu and can be distinguished by the fruit shape and colour.  Leaves Namambe leaves are oblong in shape and are dark green and leathery. They are 160 to 390 mm long and 70 to 130 mm wide. The leaf veins are opposite and yellow. Flowers  Flowers of Namambe are white to cream or pale yellow. They are fragrant and form a cluster at the ends of branches and twigs. The flowers are around 1 cm long with five petals. Fruit/Seeds  The fruit is egg shaped but irregular. It occurs either as single fruit or in clusters. The fruits are 45 to 130 mm long and 35 to 120 mm wide. Young fruit are green and ripen to orange-brown, though in some types the fruit remains green when ripe. The seeds are large and encased within the fruit. In Vanuatu, four morphotypes are distinguished by fruit shape and colour.
Pometia pinnata Native to Vanuatu, the Nandao grows in secondary forest up to 300 m in altitude. There are several varieties, ranging from a small to very large tree, but typically is 12 to 20 m tall with a canopy diameter of 10 to 20 m. They are stout trees with short twisted or fluted trunks to slender, fairly straight, trees. Older trees have prominent buttresses. Parts of the tree are used as traditional medicines. Leaves Leaflets are firmly herbaceous (herb-like) to coriaceous (leathery), asymmetrical to symmetrical, variably shaped from oblong, lanceolate (pointed at both ends) to egg-shaped. The largest leaves average 12 to 30 cm long and 4 to 10 cm wide. The midrib of the leaf is flat above with a narrow keel that is triangular in section. Leaflet margin is about 3 mm deep, dentate (has a serrated edge) or repand (slightly undulating margin) to subentire (only a few indentations). Juvenile leaves are densely covered in brownish hairs and are large, thin, and initially brightly coloured (pink to red) turning green at maturity. Flowers Nandao have highly variable flower clusters, including clusters of terminal, sub-terminal, or rarely axillary loose clusters, conspicuously projecting beyond the foliage, from stiff to hanging long main branches, simple or with secondary branching. Male flowers open first and greatly outnumber female flowers. Flowers are small, have a radial symmetry and are five-parted. The calyx (the part that encloses the petals and protects the buds) is dish shaped to shallow cup-shaped. The flowers have no scent. The flower petals are small and regular and are whitish to yellow-green and highly variable in shape. Fruit The fruit is highly variable in shape, from round to elliptical and sometimes paired. The skin of the fruit is smooth and variously coloured (greenish-yellow, yellow, red, purple, blackish or brown) with a gelatinous, sweet, white to slightly pinkish, translucent pulp that partially encases a single large seed. Numerous traditional varieties are recognised locally mainly on the basis of fruit characteristics (size, shape, colour and taste). Two main forms are found in Vanuatu, one with red fruits and the other with green fruits.
Erect spreading dark green shrub. 0.2 – 1 m high. Leaves Long, narrow, oblong, blunt, dark green above with very recurved margins. Flowers Stalked, yellow flowers with 5 distinct petals. The stamens are all found on one side of the centre of the flower and look like a tiny hand of bananas.
Its genus name Ipomoea is from the Greek 'ips' or 'ipos', a worm that eats horn and wood, and probably refers to the long slender stems. Also known as Poison Morning Glory referring to its toxicity and the morning opening of the showy flowers, followed by their closing in the afternoon. Sprawling perennial ground cover, up to 3 m wide, with twining stems. Leaves Heart shaped dark green leaves are up to 4 cm long and 2 - 3 cm wide. Flowers Lilac or pink flowers have a darker throat and are shaped like a funnel or trumpet. Flowers are up to 4 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. Field Guide Improve your identification skills. Download your Native Morning-glory field guide here!
The genus name Hardenbergia is named after Franziska Countess von Hardenberg and the species name comptoniana after Mary, 1st Marchioness of Northampton whose husband was Charles Compton. Twining shrub or climber. Its size varies depending on supporting plants or structures it is growing on. Leaves Usually crowded, 3 and sometimes rarely 5 foliate. Leaflets are 4 – 6 cm long., and do not spread very widely. Size approximately 2–4 mm long and 1 mm wide, thick, concavo-convex (concave on both sides) and pointed at ends. Flowers Blue to purple and in some cases white. Typical pea shape consisting of 5 petals: the "standard", the "keel" (2 fused petals) and two "wings". Flowers are in an often drooping, elongate cluster.
Rhizophora apiculata Mangroves are associated with wet, muddy and silty sediment. This species of mangrove has both aerial prop roots and stilt root which are designed to resist large waves and tropical storms. They are used to stabilise soil, to protect the coastline from storms, and to provide habitat for marine species. They also improve the water quality in nearshore environments. Parts of the plant can be used for traditional medicines and mangrove forests can be used as a sanctuary during cyclones. Natongtong grows up to 40 m in height, though it commonly reaches 5 to 8 m. The bark is grey to dark grey and heavily fissured, although it can occasionally be red-brown and smooth. Leaves Leaves are light or dark green, opposite, simple, egg-shaped and leathery with a distinct sharp pointed tip that is 1 to 7 mm long. The upper leaf is smooth and shiny. Mature leaves are 6 to 19 cm long and 3 to 10 cm wide. The leaf stalks are reddish. Flowers The flower clusters have few to many joint and one to many buds per cluster. The sepals of the flower, that encloses the petals and protects the flower bud, are typically pale yellow at maturity. The flower buds are egg-shaped, changing from green (immature) to pale yellowish green (mature). Buds are 1 to 2 cm long and 1 cm wide. There are generally four petals that are pointed at both ends to linear, with a creamy white colour, and are 10 mm long and 2 mm wide. Petals are arranged in a cross-shaped pattern. The stamens are pale yellow. Fruit At maturity, the fruit are pear-shaped, elongate, with a smooth brown surface. The smaller end points down. Mature fruit are located in leaf axils 8 nodes down from the apical (end of leaf distant from the branch) shoot. Seeds are hidden in the mature fruit. One to occasionally two seedlings are produced from the fruit, emerging from the smaller end while the fruit is still attached to the parent plant.
Spondias dulcis Naus is native to the Indo-Malayan region to Tahiti, including Vanuatu. It is a medium sized tree, 10 to 15 m in height, with a straight smooth grey trunk and four to eight small buttresses. The crown of the tree is rounded. In Vanuatu, there is greater variability between forms of this species than anywhere else, and villagers distinguish between different types of this species according to the size, colour and taste of its fruits. Naus loses its leaves during the dry season. Leaves The elliptical shaped leaves are 4 to 14 cm in length and 2.5 to 5 cm in width and finely toothed towards the apex. They are a glossy dark green in colour, becoming yellow before falling. Flowers The flowers are grouped in loose clusters and are 50 cm long with very small white petals. They are fairly inconspicuous. Fruit The fruit is green, yellow, or orange when ripe. It is spherical or egg shaped with a length of 6 to 12 cm and a width of 4.5 to 9 cm. The fruit are found in bunches of 12 or more on a long stalk. The pulp is juicy and yellow or orange, often with fibres that are sometimes arranged in a loose and indistinct matrix. The fruit falls to the ground when green and hard before ripening. Villagers distinguish between several sorts of this species according to the colour and size of the fruit and its taste.
Barringtonia edulis The Naval is endemic to the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. It is a medium sized tree with a vigorous framework of branches. It typically grows to 8 to 10 m but can grow up to 24 m in height. Most trees have a clear trunk up to one fifth of the tree height which is greyish-brown in colour. It has an extensive framework of branches that have regular fork following the formation of terminal flower clusters. The ‘flowers’ are part of a long hanging spike with over 100 densely packed flower buds, arranged in a spiral pattern. Almost every part of the plant has a traditional use. Leaves Leaves are large, simple, lanceolate (pointed at both ends) and are arranged clusters at the ends of the branches. The leaf size varies but is typically 21 to 66 cm long and 5 to 25 cm wide. The upper surface is a glossy dark green and the lower surface is slightly paler. The margins are undulated. Leaf veins are prominent and have a pattern of interlacing lines forming a net or web. Flowers A 30 to 110 cm long dangling spike contains up to 150 densely packed flower buds, arranged in spirally alternate pattern. The flowers varying in colour from green to white or red. Fruit The fruits are berry-like with short dense hairs. They are elongated, oblong to egg-shaped that taper towards the apex and base. They start as greyish-green and become reddish or purplish as they ripen. The typical length of a mature fruit is 25 – 99 mm. Fruits in Vanuatu are longer and more cylindrical than those in the Solomon Islands.
Saccharum edule Naviso originates from the tropical climates of south-eastern Asia and is grown in various Pacific Islands, including Vanuatu. Naviso is a species of sugarcane. This grass has a fibrous stalk that is rich in sugar. It is perennial, meaning it lives for several years. It grows in vigorous clumps with three to four stalks. The stalks grow to 1.5 to 4 m in height and are often streaked with different colours, depending on the variety. Leaves The leaves are pale green and are slightly hairy and rough. Flowers The large flower clusters do not open. Instead, they remain enclosed in their leaf sheaths, creating a dense mass that is similar in size to a banana. Fruits/seeds This species does not produce seeds. It reproduces using suckers that generate into new plants.
Flowering orchid up to 30 cm tall. This orchid is pollinated by a species of fungus gnat, attracted to the flower by a chemical produced by the plant. The insect enters the flower, which temporarily traps it inside, and in attempting to escape, it comes into contact with the sexual organs of the flower and pollination occurs. Leaves Egg-shaped to elliptic dark-green leaves in rosette arrangement at the base of the stem, 3 – 9 cm long, 1 – 3 cm wide. Leaf margins wavy or crisped. Flowers Single flower ‘hood’ emerging on a flowering spike 8 - 30 cm tall. Flowers are 1.8 – 2.5 cm long, showing a strong ‘nodding’ position; and are a translucent white colour, with green stripes and orange/brown colouration at the tips.
Fast growing medium-sized tree, 16 - 30 m tall that forms dense foliage cover. It is particularly drought resistant, and tolerates poor soil conditions. Leaves Long, slightly curved leaves 10 - 20 cm long. Flowers Grouped yellow flowers in a spike, up to 8 cm long, develop from February to August.
Its genus name Ceratopetalum means horned-petal after one of the species that has petals resembling stag’s horns, and its species name gummiferum means gum-bearing after the gum that oozes out of its bark. Evergreen shrub or small tree, up to 10 m high and 6 m wide, but much smaller when grown in gardens where it reaches a height of only 2 – 5 m. Leaves Glossy green and made up of three leaflets which are 3 – 8 cm long and 0.5 – 3 cm wide when mature. They are thin, with serrated edges, and are a golden orange-red colour when young. Flowers Initially creamy white and star-shaped, forming clusters that are 10 cm long. Each flower has five petals that are about 3 mm long. After pollination the white petals fall off, leaving the outer sepals which enlarge to about 12 mm long and turn deep pink to orange-red. These “flowers” consist of five sepals and are also star-shaped. They are commonly mistaken for flowers, but the real flowers are the less noticeable white ones.
Annual herb or perennial sub-shrub up to 20 cm tall, often forms a mat up to 2 m in diameter. Pale four-petalled yellow flowers. Leaves Distinctive leaves made up of two fleshy Y-shaped leaflets looking like butterfly wings. Leaves are ovate with a narrow end at their base. Leaves grow between 1 - 4 cm long and are fleshy, a dull grey-green or green. Flowers Bright yellow in colour with four petals growing between 8 - 15 mm.
Pencil pine is slow-growing; it can take more than 50 years to reach 1 m tall, but it can live for 1300 years, placing this species amongst the longest lived trees in the world. A conifer tree usually with a classic conical shape. Grows up to 15 m tall, smaller in exposed environments. Older trees often have multiple trunks and some dead branches. Leaves Individual leaves mid to dark green, small (3-5 mm long) and scale-like, closely clasped to stems. Leaves densely arranged around stems, forming a rope-like branchlet less than 5 mm in diameter. Cones Male and female cones usually on separate branches, at the tips of the stems. Male cones small (4 - 5 mm diameter), develop between February and May, persist until spring. Female cones 12 - 15 mm diameter, develop between September and February, cones can persist for several months after seed shed in autumn. Gold in colour, becoming reddish-brown with age. Large quantities of cones are produced during ‘mast’ years, typically every 5 - 6 years, with much less fruiting in other years.
Erect annual herb. Grows up to 1.2 m high. It is one of the largest Mulla Mulla's. Leaves Basal rosette of spatula shaped leaves up to 10 cm long. Flowers Pink/purple flower spikes are up to 10 cm long and 4 cm across with loose-hairy flowers.
Its genus name Grevillea is named after Charles Francis Greville, co-founder of the Royal Horticultural Society, and its species name speciosa means showy, referring to its foliage. Evergreen shrub, grows up to 3 m tall. Leaves Oval shaped with silvery hairs on underside. They are 1 – 5 cm long and 4 – 12 mm wide. Flowers Bright red, or occasionally pink, and spider-like in appearance. Each “spider leg” is 2 – 4 cm long and forms in a loose circle on a stalk. The flower heads are approximately 7 cm in diameter and grow at the end of branches or amongst leaves.
A tussock-like, rosette plant. Tussock size up to 30 cm high and wide with a flower stalk up to 1 m high. Leaves Long, sword-shaped and forming a clump. Each individual leaf is 8 – 20 cm long and 1 – 3 cm wide and usually stands upright. There are 5 veins running down each leaf. Flowers Small and initially cream, but turn brown rapidly. They grow on top of a ridged, 1 m high flower stem growing from the centre of the tussock of leaves. The flowers form a tight, cylindrical cluster which is 1 – 7 cm long.
Erect shrub or tree that grows up to 20 m high. Usually has a single trunk 15 - 20 cm in diameter at breast height, with pendulous branches. Bark of main trunk is grey and longitudinally fissured, while other branches have smooth, pale green bark. Leaves Phyllodes (flattened leaf stems) are long (15 - 40 cm) and thin (2 - 7 mm), straight to weakly curved, dark green and pointed. Veins numerous, closely parallel, narrower than intervein spaces. Flowers Flowers form groups of 25 - 40, forming inflorescences (flower clusters) cream in colour.
A tall tree to 40 m with smooth bark, mottled, shedding at intervals throughout the year showing white, yellow and grey, becoming roughened at the base. Frequently a straight tree but can develop more twisted habit in drier conditions. Leaves The tree has a large, dense crown of long and narrow adult leaves, lanceolate in shape or infrequently sickle-shaped, 5 - 30 cm long by 0.7 - 3.2 cm wide, and grey to grey-green on both surfaces. Side veins are prominent and usually at 45° to the leaf midrib, and oil glands are numerous and located separate to the veins. Flowers Its inflorescences (flower heads) are comprised of umbels of 7 to 11 flower buds located at the junction of the leaves and stem with the buds being of ovoid or globular shape and 0.6 - 1.1 cm long by 0.3 - 0.6 cm wide. Buds are green to yellow or cream, and have a prominent tip beak. Flowers are white to cream.
Small, semi-succulent, spreading shrub that grows 1 - 2 m tall. Branches grow to 1 m long. Leaves Leaves are green in colour with fine white hairs. Leaves are semi-succulent, cylindrical in shape and grow up to 2 cm long. Flowers Flowers are small and solitary, held in the leaf axils (where leaf joins stem).
Named in 1830 by explorer and botanist, Allan Cunningham. The genus name Grevillea honours Charles F Greville who co-founded the Royal Horticultural Society, and the species name robusta refers to its large size. Evergreen tree usually grows 20 – 30 m tall but can range from 8 – 40 m in height. Leaves Silvery green and fern-like, green on the upper surface and paler underneath. They are 10 – 34 cm long and 9 – 15 cm wide, and consist of 11 – 31 segments that are narrow-elliptic to triangular in shape. The segments are 1.5 – 5 cm long and 2 – 10 mm wide, and they give the leaf a deeply divided appearance. Flowers Golden yellow to orange, each one is about 2 cm long but they are arranged in pairs along the flowering stalk to give an overall length of 12 – 15 cm.
Its genus name Banksia is named after Sir Joseph Banks, a British explorer and naturalist, and its species name marginata is from the Latin 'marginatus' meaning bordered, referring to the recurved leaf edges. A variable species that occurs as a shrub, a flat-lying plant, or a tree, with smooth brown-grey bark. Grows up to 2 m high and wide as a shrub, less than 1 m as a flat-lying plant, and between 5 – 12 m as a tree. Leaves Green on the upper surface and silvery underneath. Each leaf is linear to oblong-shaped, 1 – 8 cm long, 3 – 13 mm wide, and has finely-toothed edges. The edges are recurved (rolled under) and may have small serrations, and their tip can be blunt or squared. Flowers Pale yellow cylindrical spikes forming a bottle-brush shape. Each flower head is 5 – 10 cm long and 4 – 6 cm wide and attracts nectar-eating birds. Fruit/seed:
Perennial, rhizomatous herb with strappy leaves. Leaves Glossy green, firm and flat. Long and thin up to 1 m long and roughly 1 cm wide. Leaves are usually taller than the flowering stem. Leaf base is broad with brownish edges. Tips of leaves have teeth. Flowers Grow in a whorled cluster attached to a straw-coloured bracts. Individual flowers are roughly 4mm long, but the cluster and leaf grow to 50 cm. Have a strong scent. Flower head is brown – during flowering petals are creamy yellow.
A spreading shrub with stiff, tangled branches often ending in sharp spines. Grows to 0.5 - 1.5 m tall and 2 m wide. Leaves Leaves are arranged alternately along branches. They are erect, linear to oblong in shape and are generally 5 - 20 mm long. They are smooth and without hairs and are mid-green in colour. Flowers 3.5 – 6.5 mm long and 0.8 – 2 mm wide, mauve to lilac-coloured, bell-shaped, spotted, found solitary at the bases of the leaves. The flower's 4 stamens (pollen-bearing) are fully enclosed in the petal tube.
Was previously named Bracteantha viscosa, and before that Helichrysum viscosum. Small stiff herb with multiple branches and hair covered stems. Grows up to 20 - 80 cm high. Leaves Stems with fine hairs or prickles. 30 - 100 mm long and 2 - 10 mm wide linear leaves with bright green elliptic (oval like shape) that have a sticky and rough surface. Flowers Bright yellow flower heads, 20-30mm wide. Displays colours of gold, orange, bronze or vibrant yellow. These appear in September to December but may occur later. Large single flower surrounded by many bracts (petals).
Although named after the early explorer, Charles Sturt, this legume was first collected by William Dampier on an island in the Dampier Archipelago in 1699. Low spreading ground cover up to 3 m wide and 30 cm high. Leaves Dull green leaves are made up of 7 pairs of oval-shaped leaflets. Stems leaves and pods are covered in short soft hairs. Flowers Red flowers are arranged in upright stalks in groups of 3 or more. Each flower is up to 9 cm from the top of the standard to the base of the keel. The standard is the large petal with the black dome at its base. In some plants the dome may be red and albino varieties with completely white flowers have been found in the Pilbara.
Lowland Leadbeater’s Possum and Helmeted Honeyeater feed on the flowers of this species, which flowers at a different time from the Mountain Swamp Gum. This overlap of flowering time provides food across an extended period for these creatures. Small to medium tree, 20 m tall. Bark is variable, dark and rough at the butt; upper trunk and branches peel in ribbons. Leaves Juvenile leaves are short-stalked, almost circular. Adult leaves are thick, glossy, dark green, ovate shaped, usually has a wavy edge. Flowers White cluster of 3 - 10 (often 7).
A dense shrub with pale white peeling, papery bark and numerous branchlets. The Swamp Paperbark grows upto 9m tall and has long needle like leaves. Leaves Leaves are arranged alternately, dark green in colour and linear in shape 5-18 mm long and 0.5-1.7 mm wide. Juvenile leaves are typically bright green. Flowers Cream/white flowers usually clustered in heads or spikes to 17 mm long and 10 mm wide. Fruit/Seeds Small woody loculicidal capsule opening at the summit with 3-4 valves. Woody capsules are typically persistent year round with seed released in pulse events.
Evergreen tree, greyish-brown bark has oak-like appearance, branchlets spreading or drooping. Can be found solo or in dense stands. Usually 8 – 15 m high. Can reach a maximum of 20 m high (rarely) and only reaches 2 m high on clifftops. The trunk can be up to 35 cm in diameter. This tree is also found in prostrate form (lying flat on the ground), reaching 30 cm high and 2 m wide. Leaves Segmented branchlets with very small teeth-like leaves (0.6 - 0.9 mm long), 12 – 17 leaves arise at the nodes of segments. New growth is strongly recurved (bent or curved backwards or downwards) and become erect as they mature. Flowers This species is dioecious (male and female reproductive structures develop on different individuals). Male inflorescences (arrangement of flowers) are spikes, growing 1.2 – long with 7 - 10 whorls per cm (ring of floral parts borne at the same level) and a 0.8 mm long anther (pollen-bearing part of the stamen).
Also know as Blackthorn. A woody shrub to small tree, usually with thorny branches. Grows up to 5 – 10 m high. Leaves Glabrous, dark green, 20 – 44 mm long and 5 – 9 –mm wide. Flowers White, 6 – 10 mm wide, fragrant.
It was first described by renowned botanist J.E. Smith, the founder of London’s Linneaen Society. Evergreen shrub with smooth, purplish brown or light green bark. Up to 0.3 – 3 m high. Leaves Narrow, straight or very slightly elliptic, and blue-green. Each leaf is about 5 – 15 cm long and 2 – 10 mm wide, with a prominent vein down the centre. Its surface is hairless and covered with a fine white powder. It grows at right angles to the stem. Flowers Pale yellow to white and ball-shaped. Each flower is 4 – 7 mm in diameter and is found in clusters of 5 – 10 flowers aligned along an axis of 1 – 3 cm long. They are sweet smelling and enclosed in overlapping bracts (modified leaves) before opening.
Large shrub up to 8 m tall. Leaves Light green phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) 14 - 2 0cm long and 2 - 3 cm wide. Several longitudinal veins. Flowers Bright yellow flowers arranged forming elongate clusters.
Bushy shrub or small tree, up to 4m in height. They can live for over 100 years. Leaves Oblong-shaped, usually 1 - 2.5 cm long and 0.5 cm wide. Flowers Solitary, white and have circular petals, 8 Usually in groups of 4 - 16 at end of branches. Creamy white in colour.across. Usually appear between December and April.
Upright rounded shrub or small tree that grows 8 - 11 m high although it can be much smaller if it is found in exposed areas. Trunk and branches are grey to dark brown. Leaves Lanceolate (lance-shaped) to elliptic (rounded) in shape, measuring 6 – 12 cm in length and 1 - 3.5cm in width. Leaves are leathery to the touch with upper surface of the leaf being a dull green while the underside is pale yellow-green. The margins of the leaf are deeply or shallowly toothed, occasionally entire or sometimes deeply lobed. Flowers Flowers may be held in clusters up to 12 cm long. Blooms are white to cream, fragrant and usually abundant when flowering. Flowers are very hairy and spidery in appearance.
Evergreen shrub or small tree. Grows 1 – 6 m high. Leaves Bright yellow-green to dark green and paler underneath. They are 4 – 15 cm long and 1 – 3 cm wide, and generally have a toothed or curved edge. The leaves have a minty smell when crushed. Flowers Funnel-shaped and white, or pink to pale mauve, with purple and orange spots inside. They are about 2 cm long and grow in clusters at the end of branches. They are slightly scented.
The Latin name Nuytsia comes from Pieter Nuyts, a member of the Council of Dutch Indies and a 17th century explorer in South Western Australia. Tree or shrub, up to 10 m high. Leaves Long thin leaves. Flowers Orange with more stamens than petals.
Miscanthus sp. Wael Ken grows in clumps and is reed or cane like in form. It reproduces underground through its root system, which sends out shoots that grow upwards. It is used as a traditional building material. The cane can also be used to drink kava once the pith is removed. Leaves Leaf sheaths are either free from hair (smooth) or covered in long soft hairs. The leave blades are flat and linear and 18-75 cm long. They have a prominent mid-rib. The leaf margins are sharp with slight serrations. Flowers Flower plumes grow from 0.3-2 m or more in height. Flowers are comprised of loose branching cluster with large fan shaped branches 10-40 cm in length. The flowers are purplish. These flower clusters persist through winter.
Also known as Cape Lilac. It reaches maturity when it is 6 – 10 years old and lives for about 20 years. Deciduous tree, usually 10 – 15 m high but can reach 45 m in its natural environment. Its canopy is 6 – 8 m wide. Leaves Bright glossy green and oval in shape, 2 – 7 cm long and 1 – 3 cm wide. They are arranged either side of a 12 – 45 cm long stem and turn yellow in late autumn before falling from the tree in winter. Flowers Pale purple to white, star-shaped, forming clusters that are 10 – 20 cm long. Each individual flower is about 2 cm in diameter and consists of 5 petals. The flowers have a chocolate scent!
It is named after John Clements Wickham, 1st lieutenant on HMS Beagle 1831-36 (Darwin's expedition), and later government resident at Moreton Bay, Queensland. A shrub or small spindly tree. Grows 1 - 4 m tall. Leaves Simple 2.5 - 9 cm long and 2.5 - 5.5 cm wide. They are distinctively pruinose (frosted in appearance) and the leaf margins are serrated and prickly. Flowers Cream, yellow or red irregular flowers. They are mainly red in the Pilbara region.
Erect shrub or tree, 3 - 10 m in height, but can grow up to 20 m. Leaves Phyllodes (flattened leaf stems) are narrow (5 - 12 mm wide) and 5 - 17 cm long. They have a prominent central vein and a curved pointed tip. Flowers Pale yellow or white, and clustered in groups of 15 - 30 inflorescences. Flowers form globular balls.
A medium sized shrub standing upto 4m tall with stringy bark that often shreds in strips and numerous branchlets with consistent foliage Leaves Narrow and oblanceolate in shape, 4-20 mm long and 1.4-4 mm wide. Leaves are silky with a silvery sheen on both sides   Flowers White flowers of approximately 15 mm diameter, occur densely along the branches.   Fruit/Seeds Hemispherical woody capsule, 5-8 mm in diameter with a ‘woolly’ outer surface. Woody capsules are typically persistent year round with seed released in pulse events.
Fast growing deciduous tree that grows to 15 - 25 m tall. Leaves Long strips of small leaves 30 - 60 cm long. Flowers Bright yellow flowers with orange stamens that blossom from March to June and September to November.
Erect or spreading shrub that grows up to 1 m high. Young stems of the plant are covered in small hairs. Leaves Branches are crowded with leaves and are arranged in more or less opposite, linear pair. Leaves are small and cylindrical in shape 3 - 8 mm long and 0.5 mm wide. Leaves are green in colour and are covered in small white hairs. Flowers Arranged in groups of mostly 2 or 3 near the ends of the branches. The floral cup is hairy and 3 – 4 mm long. Petals are pale yellow, more or less round and about 1.5 mm long. There are 24 - 35 stamens (pollen-bearing organs) that protrude from the flower 3.5 – 4.5 mm long.